What is a Computer Network

What is a Computer Network ?
Computer Network is a collection of computer and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. Computer networking links together computers, information and resources through various hardware. Take a look at the history and types of computer networking and the components involved.

Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational scope.

Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-known communications protocols include two Ethernet, a hardware and link layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.

Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.

computer networking to computer

What is a Computer Network and what 6 important part of computer network?
1. Communication Network Architectures:
New design contributions on Local Area Networks (LANs), Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) including Wired, Wireless, Mobile, Cellular, Sensor, Optical, IP, ATM, and other related network technologies,as well as new switching technologies and the integration ofvarious networking paradigms.

2. Communication Network Protocols:
New design contributions on all protocol layers except the Physical Layer, consideringall types of networks mentioned above and their performance evaluation, novel protocols, methods and algorithms related to, e.g., medium access control, error control, routing, resource discovery, multicasting, congestion and flow control, scheduling, multimedia quality of service, as well as protocol specification, testing and verification.

3. Network Services and Applications:
Web, Web caching, Web performance, Middleware and operating system support for all types of networking, electronic commerce, quality of service,new adaptive applications, and multimedia services.

4. Network Security and Privacy:
Security protocols, authentication, denial of service, anonymity, smartcards, intrusion detection, key management, viruses and other malicious codes, information flow, data integrity, mobile code and agent security.

5. Network Operation and Management:
Including network pricing, network system software, quality of service, signaling protocols, mobility management, power management and power control algorithms, network planning, network dimensioning, network reliability, network performance measurements, network modeling and analysis, and overall system management.

6. Discrete Algorithms and Discrete Modeling
Algorithmic and discrete aspects in the context of computer networking as well as mobile and wireless computing and communications. Fostering cooperation among practitioners and theoreticians in this field.

Ok, I hope you knowing structer of computer network after read this information.
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Create MySQL Database - At The Control Panel

MySQL database has become the world's most popular open source database because of its high performance, high reliability and ease of use. It is also the database of choice for a new generation of applications built on the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP / Perl / Python.) Many of the world's largest and fastest-growing organizations including Facebook, Google, Adobe, Alcatel Lucent and Zappos rely on MySQL to save time and money powering their high-volume Web sites, business-critical systems and packaged software.

MySQL runs on more than 20 platforms including Linux, Windows, Mac OS, Solaris, IBM AIX, giving you the kind of flexibility that puts you in control. Whether you're new to database technology or an experienced developer or DBA, MySQL offers a comprehensive range of database tools, support, training and consulting services to make you successful.

Create MySQL Database

Let's follow the steps for Create MySQL Database:
  1. The first step is to log into your personal web hosting control panel.To do this, click the Control Panel login link in the upper right corner of your screen. Then enter your web hosting account details (this will be your username and password), and click the 'Login' button to go straight to your Control Panel.
  2. The second step is to enter the MySQL Databases section of the Control panel. Once on the Control Panel index page you need to click the 'MySQL Databases' icon under Site Management.
  3. To create a MySQL table you need to open the phpMyAdmin tool for the coresponding database.
  • Once in the MySQL Databases section click the database name link or its corresponding phpMyAdmin icon to open the phpMyAdmin tool.
  • Then select the database from the drop-down list on the left. Next step is to define the new table's name in the 'Name' field of the 'Create new table on database' form. Then specify the number of fields in the table in 'Number of fields' and hit the 'GO' button.
  • Once the new table is created you can specify the fields' names, length, collation, attributes, etc. In our tutorial movie we've specified some examplary field name and values for the 3 fields we created in the previous step.
  • Once you specify the values for Length, select the Collation type from the drop-down menu you need to hit the 'Save' button to save you new table settings.
Then you'll can see a summary of all MySQL database table settings.

You are all done Create MySQL Database steps.
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Disable USB Autorun

Disable USB Autorun - This is the easiest way I have found to do the job, and this way I can easily control which computers have usb etc... enabled and which ones do not.

I then use local logon restriction to prevent unauthorised users access to machines which have it enabled. Also done in GP.

Read more about Computer: Computer Graphics and Internet Network Security
Do you know that most of the Malware and worm uses autorun feature of windows to Spread & launch to your machine? Ok this my solution to disable USB autorun:
Disable USB Autorun
  • Go to Start and Run
  • Type gpedit.msc
  • Click Ok
  • This will open a new group policy window.
  • In the group policy window click on the plus sign next to Administrative Templates under Computer configuration.
  • Then Click on system & then you will find turn off Autoplay on the right-hand side.
  • Double click on the Turn off Autoplay (Disable Autorun). It will open a new window.
  • By default it will set to Not configured.
  • Select Enable & select it for All drive then click Apply and OK.
  • Close the Group Policy Window.
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Computer Graphics - Characteristics of Modern Technology

Computer Graphics is a unique, interdisciplinary body of applied knowledge that includes elements of visual science, computer science, computer graphics, computer technology, and graphic design applied to the creation and communication of information. Students work in computer labs developing graphics skills, techniques, concepts, and management ability through individual and team-based projects.

Computer Graphics is Characteristics of Modern Technology
Computer graphics are graphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware.

The development of computer graphics has made computers easier to interact with, and better for understanding and interpreting many types of data. Developments in computer graphics have had a profound impact on many types of media and have revolutionized animation, movies and the video game industry.

The term computer graphics has been used in a broad sense to describe "almost everything on computers that is not text or sound". Typically, the term computer graphics refers to several different things:
  • the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer
  • the various technologies used to create and manipulate images
  • the sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content, see study of computer graphics
Read: How Edit PDF and Internet Network Security
Computer Graphics

Computer graphics is widespread today. Computer imagery is found on television, in newspapers, for example in weather reports, or for example in all kinds of medical investigation and surgical procedures. A well-constructed graph can present complex statistics in a form that is easier to understand and interpret. In the media "such charts and graphs are used to illustrate papers, reports, thesis", and other presentation material.

Many powerful tools have been developed to visualize data. Computer generated imagery can be categorized into several different types: 2D, 3D, and animated graphics. As technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still widely used. Computer graphics has emerged as a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.

Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, and scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".

Visualization is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of man. Examples from history include cave paintings, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek geometry, and Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for engineering and scientific purposes.

Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science, education, engineering (e.g., product visualization), interactive multimedia, medicine, etc. Typical of a visualization application is the field of computer graphics. The invention of computer graphics may be the most important development in visualization since the invention of central perspective in the Renaissance period. The development of animation also helped advance visualization.

That Visualization included on Computer Graphics
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Samsung - Android and Online Music Service

Samsung for Android and Online Music Service is a massive conglomerate that makes everything from internals (like the iPhone processor) to TVs and smartphones. But their weak link has always been the quality of their software–the Galaxy S3 is a beautiful phone, but many of its Samsung software add-ons and Touchwiz its self are disappointing. But they’re looking to fix that, and are willing to spend some money to do it. A senior Samsung executive told Reuters:
“The message we’re getting from the top is to raise software capability, and buy rather than build, if needed,” Kang Tae-jin, senior vice president of Samsung’s Media Solution Center, said in an interview. “Our focus on software is primarily aimed at driving hardware sales, rather than making money. We have a full range of handsets in so many countries, and, to better market our products, we thought it’s better to start our own software business.”

There are challenges to buying software companies and keeping them productive. Last year, Samsung bought online music service mSpot and rolled it into their own Music Hub service. In the past, Apple bought mapping companies shortly before releasing Apple Maps, and you know how that’s gone. But in an increasingly commodified Android hardware market, Samsung needs something to differentiate it from the Motorolas, Nokia and the HTCs, and that something is increasingly looking like software. Here’s hoping they buy something better than an Android skin.
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Mortal Kombat

After Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 1 ends on episode 9, many are asking about when Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 will be released. As we know, Tancharoen revealed that Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 will be released soon. The information is about the possibility of the appearance of Liu Kang, Kung Lao, Kabal and Goro in Season 2.

Some fans of Mortal Kombat Legacy believe that Season 2 will give lots of interesting things.

In YouTube, they give comment about the 2nd Season.
Here is some of the opinion :
Season two would concern the tenth Mortal Kombat tournament, as was portrayed in the original video game, but with a different story and outcome to that seen in the game and the first film. Also concerning a second season, he spoke about the prospect of introducing Goro and the method for which he could be portrayed believably, and better than in the film.

nightwolf for sure needs to have an episode next season, amazing story behind his character and i would like to see a cameo or just a simple scene showing meat, i think the special effects that would add to his character would be a cool look for the series showing why he has no skin and shit. Goro’s an obvious choice for next season.

mortal kombat

They will show Scorpion hunting Sub-Zero to kill him and get his revenge and Raiden will be in the next season to be the mentor of Liu Kang and Kung Lao and he probably gather fighters for the MK Tournement to protect Earthrealm from Shao Kahn.

In an interview with Movieweb, Tancharoen revealed several elements in the future of Mortal Kombat Legacy. On the creative agenda, he has spoken to Warner Bros. about a second season, stating he is always working on stories and would prefer to work with the same cast and crew.

Kevin Tacharoen has not specified about the Mortal Kombat Legacy: Season 2 release date, but is expected The Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 – Episode 1 will come out soon. So just wait because Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 is in the process of making. We will soon know about Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 release date. For look and download you can search at 4shared too.
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Nokia - Multinational Communications Corporation

Nokia is a Finnish multinational communications corporation headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Helsinki. Its principal products are mobile electronic devices, primarily mobile telephones and other communications devices.

It also offers Internet services such as applications, games, music, maps, media and messaging through its Ovi platform, and free-of-charge digital map information and navigation services through its wholly owned subsidiary Navteq. Nokia has a joint venture with Siemens, Nokia Siemens Networks, which provides telecommunications network equipment, solutions and services.

Nokia has 130,000 employees across 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of over €38 billion and operating loss of €1 billion as of 2011. As of 2012 it is the world's second-largest manufacturer of mobile phones (after Samsung), with a global market share of 22.5% in the first quarter. Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki, Frankfurt, and New York stock exchanges.


Since February 2011 Nokia has had a strategic partnership with Microsoft, as part of which all Nokia smartphones will be designed to run under Microsoft's Windows Phone operating system. On 26 October 2011 Nokia unveiled its first Windows Phone handsets, the WP7.5 Lumia 710 and 800.

oDesk Answer TestThe Nokia House, Nokia's head office located by the Gulf of Finland in Keilaniemi, Espoo, was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It is the workplace of more than 1,000 Nokia employees. The Nokia brand, valued at $25 billion, is listed as the 14th most valuable global brand in the Interbrand/BusinessWeek Best Global Brands list of 2011. It is the 14th ranked brand corporation in Europe (as of 2011), the 8th most admirable Network and Other Communications Equipment company worldwide in Fortune's World's Most Admired Companies list of 2011, and the world's 143rd largest company as measured by revenue in Fortune Global 500 list of 2011.

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Google Play

Google Play - Google’s Android Market has undergone some tremendous changes over the last year or so. What started as just a standalone app store has quickly grown to encompass e-books, music, videos, and now Google feels like the “Android Market” moniker is getting to be too restrictive, too constraining for what they’re really trying to deliver to their users.

That’s why Google is officially putting the Android Market name to rest. Starting today, all of Google’s digital media services have been rebranded to fly under a brand new banner: Google Play. That’s right gadget buffs, despite some delectable new rumors Google Play isn’t a new tablet from the folks at Mountain View, but rather a unified brand that seeks to tie the company’s digital media services together.

According to Google Engineering Director Chris Yerga, the rebranding was something Google has been contemplating for quite some time, but the company felt that this was the “natural time” to pull the trigger.

Google has spent months and months building out the Android Market into a digital media hub, but constantly invoking the Android name seems to have led to a sense of exclusion for some users. There’s nothing about the process of renting movies, purchasing music, or skimming through e-books from Google that requires anyone interested to actually own an Android device. All of a user’s pertinent media is stored in Google’s considerable cloud and accessible from run-of-the-mill web browsers, and Google wants to drive that point home with the new Google Play brand.

Google Play

As the rebrand goes live, you’ll see that most of Google’s new cosmetic efforts come into play on the web. The Android Market website has been drastically revamped to place more emphasis on the rest of the digital media that Google offers users — instead of occupying small, easy to miss tabs along the top of the page, links to Google’s Books, Music, and Video subsections and related offers now occupy prime real estate at eye-level.

That isn’t to say that changes won’t take place on your Android device of choice too. The venerable Android Market will be renamed the Google Play Store, while similar name changes will go into effect for Google’s slew of playback apps — the Google Music app for example will now be called Google Play Music. Simple enough, right? In usual Google fashion, the updates for the affected apps will go live today and will continue to roll out over the next few days.

That’s pretty much it as far as changes to the device side go — Android users have been able to access Google’s catalog of books, movies, and songs from within the Android Market app ever since their most recent design change went into effect.

This new focus on uniting Google’s digital media services on the web underscores a key concept that the search giant is hoping to drive home — the media ecosystem that they’ve created isn’t just meant for Android devices, but for users of all stripes.

Yerga tells me that Google’s intent with Google Play was to not only break down the “silos” that Google’s content types were lumped into, but also to “break down the barriers between content consumption and the store experience.” Sadly, there’s no word yet if devices like Google TV units (or the mysterious Google home boxes currently in testing) will be able to enjoy the new Play media hub.
source: techcrunch.com
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Sample Cover Letters

Sample Cover Letters
523 Sandstone Drive
Bloomington, IN 47404

September 19, 2009

Ms. Hillary Hirer
Director of Human Resources
Technology Job Corporation
1 Paycheck Avenue
Chicago, IL 60111

Dear Ms. Hirer:

I am submitting my application for the Web developer position for Technology Job Corporation’s Indianapolis offices. I became aware of this opportunity through Career Link, the Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing online job posting system. I am especially interested in a position documenting Web‐based applications or in a position that involves the use of XML, technical writing, web development, and knowledge management.

Last summer I interned as a technical writer and process manager for Acme Solutions, the global venture between Dot Inc. and Com Inc. At Acme, I worked on a team that developed, managed, and documented provisioning processes for the launching of a global IP network called Acme IP Select, which offers class of service‐to‐application mapping and traffic shaping on high‐capacity connections for virtual private networks. This experience has provided me the necessary tools to collaborate on large Web development projects, a skill that would serve me well as your Web developer.

In addition, throughout my time as an informatics student at Indiana University, I have worked at John Doe Company on intranet development for their Managed Internet Service. I was responsible for much of the building of its Knowledge Management System, or KMS, an intranet with thousands of files. In this position I wrote extensive process documentation, documented proprietary applications, organized a huge site with a JavaScript table of contents to simplify navigation, developed and maintained indexes for hundreds of documents, and managed a large‐scale, book‐length documentation project.

I believe my internship and work experiences, combined with my Informatics degree, are a great fit for your organization. Enclosed you will find my resume which further outlines my educational background and experiences. I would like the opportunity to meet with you in person to discuss the web developer position. I will contact you on October 3, 2009, to ensure the arrival of my materials and inquire about scheduling an interview. You may reach me at 812/555‐5555 or chasekappel@indiana.edu. Thank you for your time and consideration and I look forward to talking with you soon.



Chase B. Kappel

We hope this sample cover letters can help you and give you ways to get project.
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Computer Company

Computer Company - Since the release of its first innovative product, the Apple I computer, Cupertino, California-based Apple has been providing leading-edge electronic devices for creative professionals, developers, small businesses, scientists, educators, and consumers everywhere. But now, more than 30 years after its founding, the company is not only a premier computer developer, as its name change, from Apple Computer to Apple, reflects. The computer company is also a digital media powerhouse, providing best-selling portable music and video players as well as revolutionary mobile phones.

It all began when “the two Steves,” Apple co-founders Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, scrounged together the parts to build 50 “hobby computers” of their own design pre-assembled computer circuit boards with no keyboard, case, sound, or graphics for a local computer store called the Byte Shop. With money from the sale in hand, the two then quickly improved the design, with a better TV display interface, graphics, and a keyboard that made the computer ready to run. After joining with investor Mike Markkula and founding Apple Computer, in 1977 Jobs and Wozniak launched the Apple II, with the goal of changing the way people used information to work, learn, and play.

Just a few years later, a group at Apple started to design a new computer that would ignite the personal computer revolution.

computer company

After studying Xerox PARC’s research into the new GUI computer interface, Apple engineers developed the company’s first GUI-based, rather than text-based, interface. The innovative Lisa computer had Apple’s now-well-known windows and icons, but it was Apple’s Macintosh line, which followed in 1984, that took a giant leap forward, making personal computing both user friendly and simple.

In 1991 Apple continued to build on its founders’ guiding principle that the individual, not the mainframe, should be at the center of the computing universe. The computer company introduced a portable Mac, the Powerbook, which set the standard for the modern, ergonomic laptop, and in 1993 launched its first consumer device, the PDA called the Newton. In 1994 the company made available its Power Macintosh line, which incorporated IBM’s high-performance PowerPC processor.

The end of the ‘90s saw yet another Apple breakthrough computer. The iMac provided not only power and ease of use, but its streamlined, translucent body reflected Apple’s growing emphasis on design and aesthetics. The iMac, as well as the rest of the Mac line, now features such pluses as iLife software, for easily working with music, photos, and video, the capability to run all major operating systems. Apple’s state-of-the-art Mac X operating system, security from viruses, and the latest Intel chips, all in a sleek, distinctive design.

Since the turn of the century, Apple has continued its innovative, successful streak. Apple Stores now dot the U.S., Asia, and Europe, providing the latest Apple products as well as customer support through the computer company’s Genius Bars. The iPod portable digital music player is a smash hit with consumers, and Apple’s newest consumer product, the revolutionary iPhone, which provides leading-edge phone, video, and Internet capabilities, is already sought after by consumers and professionals alike. Apple’s history has been revolutionary, but its future promises to be as great. Great its article about Computer Company history for you.
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Conditioner For Dry Hair

Conditioner For Dry Hair
You probably know that there are different types of hair like dry, oily or normal, but sometimes your hairdryer can be caused by a number of external factors, such as excessive use of styling tools, sunlight, wind and cold perm. In addition to dry tresses, you will face problems such as split ends, dull hair, and curly. In this case you need to make sure your key. Check out some life-saving tips that will provide you with a smooth and soft hair.

If you are used to wash your hair every day or every other day, you should know the shampoo that cleans the natural oils from your scalp to leave hair dry. Wash your hair twice a week using a shampoo and conditioner for your hair type. Rinse with cold water to your tresses shiny hair. And warm water for your dry hair.

Regular conditioning of moisturizer is the best choice for your hair to maintain. Choose a conditioner, more natural ingredients and a little alcohol. You can also use mayonnaise as a natural conditioner. Just take a tablespoon of mayonnaise on the scalp, keep for twenty minutes and wash your hair.

Includes hot oil treatment in your hair care ritual that will enrich your scalp with vitamins and minerals. Olive oil and jojoba oil is the most efficient way to hot oil treatments.

Your diet is also very important for healthy hair and shiny, the vegetables will provide you with the necessary vitamins. Try to drink plenty of water.

Another factor that can cause dry your hair is to use styling products like hair mousse, hair spray and gel. Styling tools such as hair dryers and flat irons can dry out your hair, that is why if you are familiar with the style of your hair, heat protection serum to apply before styling process.

Regular pruning will provide you with fresh and healthy hair with no split ends. So take care of your hair and you will surely be an incredible hairstyle. This is Conditioner For Dry Hair information.
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Internet Network Security

Internet Network Security (INS) - The Internet can be a very productive, but also a very dangerous place. Nearly every business of any size uses it, and to disregard it would be disastrous for business. But, to use it means to expose oneself to numerous risks.  INS are necessary for any company, from the one-person home-based operation, to the largest multi-national enterprise.

There are hundreds of different types of Internet security, ranging from simple to complex, and from affordable to budget-breaking expensive. At the most basic, almost all companies use at least a firewall and an anti-virus software package, but this is inadequate by itself. Of course, it goes without saying that good Internet network security must include these elements. But to start with the firewall portion of Internet security , the type of firewall is of utmost importance.

A simple, packet-filtering firewall does not operate at the highest level of the OSI model, and will not be able to recognize application-layer attacks, which are the most prevalent and potentially the most dangerous. Only a proxy-based, application-layer firewall can afford the highest level of protection of all Internet security solutions.

And by the same token, not all anti-virus solutions are equal. Solutions like those from Secure Computing not only include the Sidewinder proxy-based, application-layer firewall, they also include multiple layers of anti-virus technology that incorporate multiple engines for the greatest protection.

Internet Network Security

Zero-day protection is also afforded by the Secure Computing Internet security technology, which is able to prevent virus attacks even when those viruses have not yet been identified and categorized for inclusion in the recognition engine.

Enterprises today, even smaller ones, include remote connectivity, and ILG's Internet security meet the needs of global remote connectivity as well with highly secure SSL-VPN connections that allow for secure communications from anywhere, at any time. A key advantage with ILG's remote connectivity is the ability to check even encrypted traffic for malicious content.

A common way for attackers to circumvent protection is to hide malware in encrypted data, which can then bypass many firewalls. Because Internet Network Security package includes SSL scanning, encrypted content can be decrypted at the gateway for full analysis, and then re-encrypted for passage onto the internal network.
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How Edit Pdf

How Edit Pdf - While you can open and read a PDF (Portable Document Format) file in Adobe Reader, you need Adobe Acrobat to edit the actual PDF file. You can add, replace and delete text in your PDF or change its color, style and spacing. You can also re-size objects and move them where you want them to appear on your page. Once you've edited your PDF, simply copy and paste the information into a new or existing Microsoft Word document.

Instructions Edit PDF:
  • Open the PDF document you want to edit in Adobe Acrobat.
  • Select "Tools," "Advanced Editing" and "TouchUp Text Tool" from the toolbar. Then click within the text you want to modify or delete. Type in the new or additional text or press "Delete."
  • Click on the "TouchUp Text Tool" in the toolbar. Then right-click on the text you want to format and select "Properties." The "TouchUp Properties" dialog box will open.
  • Choose the text formatting you wish to apply, such as the font, size, character/word spacing, fill and stroke. Then click on "OK.
  • Click on "Tools," "Advanced Editing" and "TouchUp Object Tool" in the toolbar. Then select a table, chart, image or other object you want to edit. Re-size it by pulling on its corners with your mouse until it's the correct size. To move an object, select it with your mouse, then drag it to its new location.
  • Click on the "Select Tool" in the toolbar. Then select the text you want to copy. To select an entire page, click on "View," "Page Display" and "Single Page" in the toolbar. Then select "Edit" and "Select All."
  • Click on "Edit" and "Copy" in the toolbar. Then minimize Acrobat Reader.
  • Go to Microsoft Word and place the insertion point where you want the text to go.
  • Click on "Edit" and "Paste" in the Word toolbar. The contents you copied in Adobe will be pasted into Word.
We hope you happy was get information about How Edit Pdf
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Breast Cancer Staging

Breast Cancer Staging
Staging is the process of determining the extent of the cancer and its spread in the body. Together with the type of cancer, staging is used to determine the appropriate therapy and to predict chances for survival.

To determine if the cancer has spread, several different imaging techniques can be used.
  • Chest X-ray: It looks for spread of the cancer to the lung.
  • Mammograms: More detailed and additional mammograms provide more images of the breast and may locate other abnormalities.
  • Computerized tomography (CT scan): These specialized X-rays are used to look at different parts of your body to determine if the breast cancer has spread. It could include a CT of the brain, lungs, or any other area of concern.
  • Bone scan: A bone scan determines if the cancer has spread (metastasized) to the bones. Low level radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream, and over a few hours, images are taken to determine if there is uptake in certain bone areas, indicating metastasis.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET scan): A radioactive material is injected that is absorbed preferentially by rapidly growing cells (such as cancer cells). The PET scanner then locates these areas in your body.
  • Staging system: This system is used by your health care team to summarize in a standard way the extent and spread of your cancer. This staging can then be used to determine the treatment most appropriate for your type of cancer.
The most widely used system in the U.S. is the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM system.

Breast Cancer Staging

Besides the information gained from the imaging tests, this system also uses the results from surgical procedures. After surgery, a pathologist looks at the breast cancer and associated lymph nodes under the microscope. This information gained is incorporated into the staging as it tends to be more accurate than the physical exam and X-ray findings alone.

TNM staging:
T: This describes the size of the tumor. It is followed by a number from 0 to 4. Higher numbers indicate a larger tumor or greater spread:
  • TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed 
  • T0: No evidence of primary tumor 
  • Tis:Carcinoma in situ 
  • T1: Tumor is 2 cm or less across 
  • T2: Tumor is 2 cm to 5 cm 
  • T3: Tumor is more than 5 cm 
  • T4: Tumor of any size growing into the chest wall or skin.
N: This describes the spread to lymph nodes near the breast. It is followed by a number from 0 to 3.
  • NX: Nearby lymph nodes cannot be assessed (for example if they have previously been removed). 
  • N0: There has been no spread to nearby lymph nodes. In addition to the numbers, this part of the staging is modified by the designation "i+" if the cancer cells are only seen by immunohistochemistry (a special stain used by pathologists during microscopic examination) and "mol+" if the cancer could only be found using PCR (special laboratory detection technique to detect cancer at the molecular level).
  • N1: Cancer has spread to one to three axillary lymph nodes (underarm lymph nodes) or tiny amounts of cancer are found in internal mammary lymph nodes (lymph nodes near breastbone).
  • N2: Cancer has spread to four to nine axillary lymph nodes or the cancer has enlarged the internal mammary lymph nodes. 
  • N3: Any of the conditions below:
Cancer has spread to 10 or more axillary lymph nodes with at least one cancer spread larger than 2 mm.

Cancer has spread to lymph nodes under the collar bone (clavicle) with at least one area of cancer spread greater than 2 mm.
  • M: This letter is followed by a 0 or 1, indicating whether the cancer has spread to other organs.
  • MX: Metastasis cannot be assessed. 
  • M0: No distant spread is found on imaging procedures or by physical exam. 
  • M1: Spread to other organs is present.
Once the T, N, and M categories have been determined they are combined into staging groups. There are five major staging groups, stage 0 to stage IV, which are subdivided into A and B, or A and B and C, depending on the underlying cancer and the T, N, and M scale.

Cancers with similar stages often require similar treatments. Breast Cancer Staging from best information. 
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Acid Rain - Best Information Water

Best Information - Acid Rain or acid deposition,form of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, or hail) containing high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids (pH below 5.5–5.6). Produced when sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides combine with atmospheric moisture, acid rain can contaminate drinking water, damage vegetation and aquatic life, and erode buildings and monuments.

Automobile exhausts and the burning of high-sulfur industrial fuels are thought to be the main causes, but natural sources, such as volcanic gases and forest fires, may also be significant. It has been an increasingly serious problem since the 1950s, particularly in the NE United States, Canada, and W Europe, especially Scandinavia.

Acid rain became a political issue in the 1980s, when Canada claimed that pollutants from the United States were contaminating its forests and waters. Since then regulations have been enacted in North America and Europe to curb sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants; these include the U.S. Clean Air Act (as reauthorized and expanded in 1990) and the Helsinki protocol (1985), in which 21 European nations promised to reduce emissions by specified amounts. To assess the effectiveness of reductions a comprehensive study, comparing data from lakes and rivers across N Europe and North America, was conducted by an international team of scientists in 1999.


The results they reported were mixed: while sulfates (the main acidifying water pollutant from acid rain) were lower, only some areas showed a decrease in overall acidity. It remained to be determined whether more time or a greater reduction in sulfur emissions was needed to reduce freshwater acidity in all areas. See air pollution; forest; pollution.

All Related Information:
In cation exchange, the ions of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and other metals are attached to the clay and humus particles in the soil. The attractive forces of positive metal ions to the negatively charged clay particles is strong enough to hold the metal ions in the soil despite the passage of water through the soil.

Effect of Acid:
The hydrogen ions in the sulfuric acid trade places with the metal ions. The hydrogen ions are retained and neutralized by the soil. The calcium, potassium, and magnesium ions are leached or washed out of the top soil into lower inaccessible subsoil. These ions are then not available as nutrients or fertilizers needed for tree and plant growth.
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Acid Rain Effects on Soils - Mobilize Aluminum

Acid Rain Effects on Soils - Mobilize Aluminum
Increasing amounts of acids can "mobilize" aluminum ions which are normally present in an insoluble nontoxic form of aluminum hydroxide. It appears that when the soil pH dips to 5 or lower, aluminum ions are dissolved into the water and become toxic to plants.

Aluminum ions cause a stunting of the root growth and prevent the roots from taking up calcium. The result may be the overall slowing of the growth of the entire tree.

Lower soil pH and aluminum mobilization can reduce populations of soil microorganisms. Soil bacteria have the job of breaking down the dead and decaying leaves and other debris on the forest floor. The effect of this action is to release nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, phosphate, nitrate, and others. Low pH and high aluminum ion concentrations inhibit this process.

Higher amounts of acids can mobilize other toxic metals from the insoluble to the soluble ion forms in the same fashion as aluminum.

The toxic metals include lead, mercury, zinc, copper, cadmium, chromium, manganese, and vanadium.

These may all contribute to slow the growth of a tree. In addition, this combination of toxic metals may also adversely effect the growth of soil bacteria, mosses, algae, fungi, and earthworms.
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Acid Rain Effects on Soil - Tree Growth Leaching Nutrients

Acid Rain Effects on Soil of the Tree Growth Leaching Nutrients
Trees derive their nutrition primarily from element ions such as calcium, Ca, magnesium, Mg, and potassium, K that have dissolved from rocks into the soil.

Acid deposition adds hydrogen ions, which displace these important nutrients in a process called leaching. Leaching means that the ions are washed deeper into the subsoil or washed out of the top soil. If ions are leached from the soil, they are no longer available to the roots of the plants.

Calcium ion is used in the cells of a tree for cell formation and in the processes that transport sugars, water, and other nutrients from the roots to the leaves.

Magnesium ion is a vital element in photosynthesis and as a carrier of phosphorus which is important in the production of DNA. These ions may be unavailable to the tree roots because they have been leached away.
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Neutralization Effectiveness Acid Rain

Neutralization Effectiveness Acid Rain
The extent to which soils can neutralize acid rain depends on several factors: type of soil, thickness, weather, and water flow patterns. If the ground is frozen, as in the winter, soil process cannot work, the acid is not neutralized. If the soil is mainly quartz, such as sand, it is resistant to weathering and no bases are present to neutralize acid. If the soil has very little base such as limestone, the acid is neutralized only slightly or with the passage of time, not at all.

In the slightly acidic soils in typical evergreen forests in the Northeastern U.S., Canada, and Europe, two other effects can neutralize the acid rain. The acid can be immobilized as the soil or vegetation retains the sulfate and nitrate ions (from sulfuric and nitric acids). Very deep soils have a large capacity to retain sulfate and nitrate ions.
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Limestone Neutralization Acid Rain

Limestone Neutralization Acid Rain
When acid rain falls to the earth, it undergoes a new round of physical and chemical changes. These changes may reduce the acidity and change the chemical characteristics of the water reaching the streams and lakes.

Alkaline or basic soils, such as those rich in limestone, calcium carbonate, can neutralize the acid directly. These types of soils are found in the Midwest, Great Plains, and most of the Western states.
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Buy Samsung Android Tablet Online

Buy Samsung Android Tablet Online - Samsung shows up fashionably late to the Android Tablet party with a new product scheduled to release this quarter.

Samsung Electronics Co plans to introduce tablet computers this quarter based on Google’s Android operating system, joining a growing list of firms seeking to challenge Apple’s popular iPad.

Global handset vendors and PC makers including Nokia, LG Electronics and Hewlett-Packard Co are moving into the new category of devices, between traditional PCs and smartphones, taking a cue from Apple.

Samsung, the world’s No.2 handset maker after Nokia, said its tablet PC will have a 7-inch display, smaller than the 9.7-inch screen on the iPad, which has sold more than 3 million units since its April launch.

It did not provide further details.
Its local rival LG Electronics, the world’s No.3 handset maker, also plans to introduce tablets or slate devices running on Android in the fourth quarter.

Microsoft Corp said on Thursday it would introduce new tablets based on its Windows operating system soon to beat back advances by Apple and Google and is working with PC makers Acer Inc, Dell Inc, Toshiba Corp and others to develop the devices. Buy Samsung Android Tablet Online article for information @ Here.
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Mediafire - Upload File and Share

Mediafire is one of the server amoung the other big file upload servers like megaupload and fileserve. But most loved of them all will be mediafire. Apart from mediafire you can read another file sharing such us 4shared.

There are many reasons to why mediafire is the best upload server among the others.It provides free upload server. It has almost zero waiting time for download link to appear. You can download as many files from mediafire as you want and still there is no limit in the mediafire. If you want to distribute some file on internet it is best to do with mediafire, beacuse of its zero waiting time. No one would be irritated by medifire for sure.

I have used other servers, which require me to wait for some time for each download link to appear, and waiting time increases with each download. And there is limit to how many downloads u can make. I am talking about free accounts not premium accounts. In some countries, you cannot download even a single file in a day. With mediafire you can download unlimited number of files without limit.There is no varation in the download speed. It will give you the maximum speed provided by the bandwidith of your internet connection.

The most interesting thing is the resume download after download is broken due to some reason such as modem failure or power failure on your premise. With Static IP, one just has to use resume option on there favorate download manager. But with Dynamic IP, you have to follow a series of actions to resume your download link.Read my article called – Resume mediafire download link on Internet Download Manager
(IDM) for more details.

Mediafire is good for movies. You just have to google – mediafire movies, and there you have handful of sites that provides latest mediafire movies online which are of very small size. Read my article – Why medifire & movies make a cool friendship. Such us Mortal Kombat

Open and Search Mediafile Files On Mac
MediaFire is a file hosting website that allows you to upload files and share them with your friends by sending links. MediaFire is Web-based and requires only a browser and a program capable of viewing the file you want to download. Download a file that you uploaded to MediaFire by logging in to your account, or click a link sent by a friend to download a file she has uploaded.

Opening a File You Have Uploaded
Step 1
Open a Web browser and navigate to MediaFire.com. Click the "Login" link in the upper-right corner of the page, enter the email address and password associated with your MediaFire account and click the "Login to MediaFire" button.

Step 2
Click the folder on the left side of the page where you have stored the file you want to open.

Step 3
Click the file to open it in a new window or tab.

Opening a File Uploaded by Another User
Step 1
Click the link associated with the MediaFire file you want to open. Each file uploaded to MediaFire has a unique download link. If a user has not provided a link to you, you can search MediaFire on Google using a keyword phrase followed by the operator "site:mediafire.com." A typical MediaFire link looks like "www.mediafire.com/?" followed by an alphanumerical string.

Step 2
Click the green "Download" button near the center of the page. This opens the "Downloads" window and begins downloading the file. Minimize the "Downloads" window and continue browsing if you like; the icon in the Dock will alert you automatically when the download is complete.

Step 3
Double-click the file to open it in the associated viewer when the download is complete.

If you have difficulty opening a file after downloading it from MediaFire, you may not have an appropriate program installed. Search for the three-letter file extension -- such as FLV or AVI -- online to find Mac-compatible software that can open it.
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4shared - Online Storage and File Sharing Sites

4shared is a very basic online file sharing service. This site offers two pricing plans that provide a handful of features to help you upload and send large files anywhere. This file sharing service provides adequate tracking features to help you monitor the activity of your files, along with a few security options. 4shared is not the most advanced or feature-filled online file sharing service, but it still has the capabilities to prove that it is an option worthy of your consideration.

As we mentioned before, 4shared offers two pricing plans. One plan is free, but it lacks many of the tools you will need if you plan to use this file sharing service for business. The premium plan gives you an excellent assortment of tools and features that are ideal for businesses of all sizes, and for home use. With this plan, you receive 100GB of 4shared’s online storage. You can download and send files any number of times and share any type of file, up to 5GB.

There are a few basic personalization options included on 4shared. You can copy, move, delete and rename any files that you store with this service. You can also customize your account background to make it more individualized and enjoyable to use. However, you can’t customize or brand any of the messages you send to individuals. You cannot upload your computer company logo or add specific colors or designs to your messages.

4shared also does not feature an MS Outlook plugin. This plugin would allow you to integrate the service into your Outlook account and use the contacts and other information stored in the system. Their service also lacks custom dropbox capabilities that allows you to add an instant-upload widget to your website. By adding a dropbox, clients, colleagues and other individuals would be able to upload large files directly to your website and avoid the hassle of using email or FTP.

There are several tracking tools available from this online file sharing service. 4shared provides statistics on all of your files. You can access theses statistics, which include file size, type of file, upload date and number of views, from your online account. You can also view specific account details such as the amount of storage space left for your account and when the last download occurred.

Several security features are available with the premium plan from 4shared. This file sharing site offers password protection so that you can protect each file from being accessed by unauthorized users. 4shared also automatically checks each file for virus threats, protecting your files and your computers. There isn’t any isolated file storage available using this file sharing service, which would be a beneficial added layer of security.

4shared.com offers an extensive FAQs section on its website. This section provides answers to questions about a variety of topics ranging from managing files to sharing folders and files. There is also a small tour section on the website to assist you with learning about all of the features and tools available from this file sharing site. If you wish to contact a support representative, telephone or email support is also available.

4shared is an excellent option for all your file sharing needs. You can share all file types with this online service, which provides a variety of tracking tools. There are a few features this application lacks, such as custom dropbox capabilities and an MS Outlook plugin. However, it still provides all the necessary tools to share your files with ease. 4shared is a basic service, but it is still fully capable and is an option worth investigating.

  • 4shared provides protection for your files against possible antivirus threats. It also allows you to send files up to 5GB and has the capability to send file types of all kinds.
  • This online file sharing service offers the bare minimum for personalization features. It also lacks an MS Outlook plugin and custom dropbox capabilities.
  • 4shared offers a handful of features and tools to help you share files to anyone. It provides an adequate number of tracking capabilities and security options. However, it is a very basic service with several areas in which improvements need to be made before it can become a top online file sharing site.
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Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Breast Cancer Diagnosis - Although breast cancer can be diagnosed by the above signs and symptoms, the use of screening mammography has made it possible to detect many of the cancers early before they cause any symptoms.

The American Cancer Society has the following recommendations for breast cancer screenings:
  • Women age 40 and older should have a screening mammogram every year and should continue to do so as long as they are in good health.
  • Mammograms are a very good screening tool for breast cancer. As in any test, mammograms have limitations and will miss some cancers. The results of your mammogram, breast exam, and family history should be discussed with your health care professional.
  • Women should have a clinical breast exam (CBE) as part of regular health exams by a health care professional about every 3 years for women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 years of age and over.
  • CBE are an important tool to detect changes in your breasts and also trigger a discussion with your health care professional about early cancer detection and risk factors.
Breast self-exam (BSE) is an option for women starting in their 20s. Women should report any breast changes to their health care professional.

If a woman wishes to do BSE, the technique should be reviewed with her health care professional. The goal is to feel comfortable with the way the woman's breasts feel and look and, therefore, detect changes.

Women at high risk (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderate risk (15% to 20%) should talk to their doctor about the benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening to their yearly mammogram.
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Breast Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Breast Cancer Symptoms and Signs
The most common sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast. In addition, the following are possible signs of breast cancer:
  • Nipple discharge or redness
  • Breast or nipple pain
  • Swelling of part of the breast or dimpling
It is best to detect breast cancer before any of these signs occur by following screening mammography guidelines. You should discuss these or any other findings that concern you with your health care professional.

The Different Types of Breast Cancer
What is Breast Cancer?

More women are now being diagnosed by means of a routine mammogram. Any lump in the breast and any mammogram abnormality must be studied very carefully. Other signs might include:
  • Changes in breast size or shape
  • Crusting or scaling on the nipple
  • Dimpling or puckering of the skin-thickening and dimpling skin is sometimes called orange peel
  • Inverted nipple
  • Lump or swelling in the armpit
  • Peeling, scaling or flaking of the nipple or breast skin
  • Redness, swelling and increased warmth in the affected breast
Often, these symptoms are not caused by cancer. Other health problems can cause them. Testing is necessary to make a diagnosis.

When to see a doctor
Early diagnosis is especially important for breast cancer because the disease responds best to treatment before it has spread. The earlier breast cancer is found and treated, the better a woman's chance for complete recovery.

Although the majority of breast changes don't turn out to be cancer, make an appointment to see your doctor if you find a lump or other change in your breast. Even if you've just had a mammogram with normal results, it's still important to have your doctor evaluate any changes.
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Breast Cancer Risk Factors

Breast Cancer Risk Factors contained in this site is fully copyright / property of the authors, editor are concerned. This Best Information blog only share this information from the third party.

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Some of the breast cancer risk factors can be modified (such as alcohol use) while others cannot be influenced (such as age). It is important to discuss these risks with your health care professional any time new therapies are started (for example, postmenopausal hormone therapy).

The following are risk factors for breast cancer:
  • Age: The chances of breast cancer increase as you get older.
  • Family history: The risk of breast cancer is higher among women who have relatives with the disease. 
  • Having a close relative with the disease (sister, mother, or daughter) doubles a woman's risk.
  • Personal history: Having been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast increases the risk of cancer in the other breast or the chance of an additional cancer in the original breast.
  • Women diagnosed with certain benign breast conditions have an increased risk of breast cancer. 
  • These include atypical hyperplasia, a condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of breast cells but no cancer has developed.
  • Menstruation: Women who started their menstrual cycle at a younger age (before 12) or went through menopause later (after 55) have a slightly increased risk.
  • Breast tissue: Women with dense breast tissue (as documented by mammogram) have a higher risk of breast cancer.
  • Race: White women have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but African-American women tend to have more aggressive tumors when they do develop breast cancer.
  • Exposure to previous chest radiation or use of diethylstilbestrol increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Having no children or the first child after age 30 increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Breastfeeding for 1 ½ to 2 years might slightly lower the risk of breast cancer.
  • Being overweight or obese increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Use of oral contraceptives in the last 10 years increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Using combined hormone therapy after menopause increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Alcohol use increases the risk of breast cancer, and this seems to be proportional to the amount of alcohol used.
  • Exercise seems to lower the risk of breast cancer.
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Causes Breast Cancer

Causes Breast Cancer - There are many risk factors that increase the chance of developing breast cancer. Although we know some of these risk factors, we don't know how these factors cause the development of a cancer cell.

Breast Cancer Facts
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The Different Types of Breast Cancer

The Different Types of Breast Cancer
There are many types of breast cancer. Some are more common than others, and there are also combinations of cancers. Some of the most common types of cancer are as follows:
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ: The most common type of noninvasive breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This type of cancer has not spread and therefore usually has a very high cure rate.
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma: This cancer starts in a duct of the breast and grows into the surrounding tissue. It is the most common form of breast cancer. About 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma: This breast cancer starts in the glands of the breast that produce milk. Approximately 10% of invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • The remaining breast cancers types are much less common and include the following:
  • Mucinous carcinomas are formed from mucus-producing cancer cells.
  • Mixed tumors contain a variety of cell types.
  • Medullary carcinoma is an infiltrating breast cancer that presents with well-defined boundaries between the cancerous and noncancerous tissue.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer: This cancer makes the skin of the breast appear red and feel warm (giving it the appearance of an infection). These changes are due to the blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells.
  • Triple-negative breast cancers: This is a subtype of invasive cancer with cells that lack estrogen and progesterone receptors and have no excess of a specific protein (HER2) on their surface. It tends to appear more often in younger women and African-American women.
  • Paget's disease of the nipple: This cancer starts in the ducts of the breast and spreads to the nipple and the area surrounding the nipple. It usually presents with crusting and redness around the nipple.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma: These cancers have both glandular and cystic features. They tend not to spread aggressively and have a good prognosis.
The following are other uncommon types of breast cancer:
Reviewed by Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
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What is Breast Cancer?

What is breast cancer? contained in this site is fully copyright / property of the authors, editor are concerned. This Best Information blog only share this information from the third party.

The entire media, including the text / picture about Breast Cancer available on this site are for promotional and evaluation purposes only.

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Breast cancer is a malignant tumor (a collection of cancer cells) arising from the cells of the breast. Although breast cancer predominantly occurs in women it can also affect men. This article deals with breast cancer in women.

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Breast Cancer Facts

Breast Cancer Facts contained in this site is fully copyright / property of the authors, editor are concerned. This Best Information blog only share this information from the third party.

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Breast cancer facts
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women.
  • One in every eight women in the United States develops breast cancer.
  • There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasizing) to other body tissues.
  • The causes of breast cancer are not yet fully known although a number of risk factors have been identified.
  • There are many different types of breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is diagnosed with physician and self-examination of the breasts, mammography, ultrasound testing, and biopsy.
  • Treatment of breast cancer depends on the type of cancer and its stage (the extent of spread in the body).
  • According to the American Cancer society:
  • Over 200,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed each year.
  • Nearly 40,000 women are expected to die of breast cancer in 2012.
  • There are over 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States.
  • The recommendations regarding frequency and age when women should get screening mammography differ slightly between different organizations and task forces.
  • Between 40 and 50 years of age, mammograms are recommended every 1 to 2 years (National Cancer Institute). After 50 years of age, yearly mammograms are recommended (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology).
  • You should discuss with your health care professional the screening frequency that he or she recommends and what guidelines they follow.
  • Patients with a family history or specific risk factors might have a different screening schedule including starting screening mammograms at an earlier age.
Thanks for read Breast Cancer information!
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